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Amnesty International Campaign Manual


Fundraising and campaigning

Every campaigner knows the importance of having funds when taking action. However, seeing fundraising only as a means to an end is likely to lead to lost opportunities _ for both campaigning and fundraising. In order to harness properly its potential support, AI members at every level need to recognize that both campaigners and fundraisers want action in support of human rights, and that action can be in the form of time or money.


What is integrated fundraising and campaigning? / 86

Why integrate? / 87

The basics of fundraising / 87

Techniques for attracting support / 88

    Direct mail / 89

    Advertising and promotion / 90

    Telemarketing / 90

    Merchandising / 90

    Special events / 91

Techniques for consolidating support / 92

    Direct mail / 92

    Regular giving schemes / 93

    Top supporters' clubs / 93

    Telemarketing / 93

    Legacies and bequests / 93

    Other means / 94

A sustainable strategy / 94

How integrated are your fundraising and campaigning? / 95

Help for fundraising / 96

“The cost of liberty is less than the price of repression.”

William Edward Burghardt Du Bois What is integrated fundraising and campaigning?

“If only we had the money we could...” As a campaigner you have probably thought this at least once, or if not, you probably will in the future.

Fundraising is an integral part of the work of a campaigning organization. In some AI Sections, campaign coordinators are also responsible for fundraising. In others, the roles are separate. In both cases, the campaign coordinator has an important role to play in creating a culture that places equal value on campaigning and fundraising and in breaking down the artificial barriers that can exist between them.

AI's most valuable resource for campaigning and fundraising is its supporters (members and financial donors). To make the most of their commitment, it is important for AI's different programs to plan together. Servicing and maintaining AI's support base is the responsibility of both fundraisers and campaigners.

For these reasons it is useful for campaigners to acquire at least a basic knowledge of fundraising techniques and practice. Likewise, marketing principles and techniques essential to fundraising can help campaigning work.

Integrated fundraising and campaigning means making sure that:

N    campaigning includes the message that AI needs support (both money and time) and provides the opportunity for people to give that support _ for example, by including on leaflets coupons that ask people to join or donate funds;

N    fundraising activities promote as much as possible the current campaigning objectives of AI;

N    campaigns offer a wide range of actions to cater for all AI participants and structures;

N    integration of fundraising and campaigning should take place systematically at the overall strategic planning stage, and in the action planning process.

Planning schedules and periods for fundraising and campaigning may not coincide exactly, yet it is important that action planning (which is often shorter term) takes place within an integrated plan.

The experience of many AI Sections shows that members and supporters change their method of support _ from time to money and vice versa. Younger supporters may, for instance, be in a position to give time. As they become older and take on other responsibilities they may wish to show their support mainly through financial contributions. It is important that AI has the systems in place to enable and encourage people to make these choices.

The key fundraising task for Sections is to develop a base of members and donors outside of any group structure. Building such a support base may cost money at first but it is a proven path to financial self-sufficiency and raising income in any country.

Finally, fundraising is campaigning, as both activities:

N    aim to influence behaviour;

N    rely on targeting messages to different audiences;

N    need clear communication and calls for action;

N    need to make it easier to say “yes” than “no”;

N    rely on building long-term relationships with supporters;

N    provide opportunities for people to support AI's human rights work;

N    build awareness and knowledge.

Why integrate?

There are several reasons why AI needs to integrate fundraising and campaigning.

N    AI's fundraising reinforces its reputation for independence from government or major funders, thereby contributing to AI's campaigning credibility and effectiveness.

N    Integration prevents supporters and potential supporters from seeing AI as two separate organizations _ one asking for money, another asking for time. N    AI's messages to both its supporters and the public need to be consistent and reinforcing. If AI is campaigning on the importance of building awareness on a particular human rights situation, this message will be strengthened or undermined by whether or not it is also carried in fundraising communications.

N    Integration ensures that there is a clear image of what AI stands for and does. If AI excessively uses the images of children to raise funds there is a risk that AI could be wrongly perceived as a children's organization.

N    Integration allows for multiple use of the same materials, thus saving money and providing extra resources for campaigning. For instance, campaign T-shirts can be sold, coupons can be included on campaigning literature, greeting cards featuring the images of the campaign can be sent to members, and AI reports can be sold.

A key fundraising principle is that “people give to help people not organizations”. This means that fundraisers need to know the campaigning information to feed into appeals _ and be able to transform them into gripping personal stories so that potential supporters can feel and see the need to donate to and join AI. People take action because of a combination of emotional and intellectual reasons _ appeals to the head and heart!

The basics of fundraising

When AI needs action the first people it turns to are its members or known supporters, whether for time or money. It follows that a successful long-term fundraising (and campaigning) strategy depends on attracting and retaining support.

The basic conceptual tool is the fundraising pyramid (see diagram overleaf). The Pareto principle states that 80 per cent of income comes from 20 per cent of supporters (the top of the pyramid). A lot of fundraising energy and resources therefore go into trying to get people into the base of the pyramid _ that first gesture of support through time or money. The investment of energy and resources spent on attracting supporters is then consolidated by seeking to move people up the support pyramid through developing their knowledge of and commitment to AI.

Techniques for

attracting support

Attracting support, whether through advertising, inserts or letters, can be expensive. AI has found that in at least some countries people often join after thinking about it seriously three or four times first. So it is essential to give people as many opportunities as possible to think about joining, taking part or donating money.

It is also essential to have in place systems for recording the details of people who join _ or who are interested in joining _ so that you can continue to communicate with them. This can be a simple card index system or a computer database. The main techniques of attracting support are:

N    direct mail

N    advertising and promotion

N    telemarketing

N    merchandise

N    special events

Direct mail

Direct mail is one of AI's most successful techniques for attracting new support in countries with inexpensive and efficient postal systems. As printing and postage costs can be quite high, direct mail is most likely to be cost-effective when it is carefully targeted at people believed to be most likely to support AI _ such as members of organizations who might be sympathetic to AI's concerns.

Sometimes it is possible to exchange a mailing with these organizations. The other organization mails your letter to its supporters and you mail their letter to AI supporters. In other situations, it is possible to rent or buy mailing lists. In some countries there are “list-brokers” who do mailings. Direct mail can also attract support through member-get-member schemes. Either your members ask their friends to join or they send you likely names and addresses for you to mail directly. (The UK Section has a helpful list of guidelines on the conduct of mailing exchanges with other organizations.)

Send direct mail appeals to your members and donors at least four times a year. The main NGOs and AI Sections do this about six times a year. Your members will feel involved and appreciate your prompt thank you letters. Response rates to existing supporters range between 6 and 12 per cent.

Break-even costs vary substantially but may be at about 2 per cent response from cold lists. From exchange mailings you may get up to 5 per cent. The expectation in many organizations is not that the first mailing will make a profit but that over the period each new person can be expected to stay with the organization they will contribute a certain amount.

Advertising and promotion

Advertising in the national press, radio, television or cinema can be effective, although it is very expensive. It is important to make it easy for people to respond to the advertisements by including a clear coupon or telephone number. The best way of evaluating the effectiveness of your advertising is to check the number of responses.

If possible, test before you invest. You can do this by finding out how successful other organizations have been using similar techniques, by researching industry standards, or by running a small test before embarking on the major project.

Inserting membership/donor leaflets in magazines or newspapers can be effective, although carefully targeting the audience and the appeal can make the difference between success and failure. Look at previous results.

Magazines and newspapers may be able to provide you with market research results on the audience they reach, which can help you decide by matching that audience profile with the characteristics of your existing supporters. You can also place membership leaflets in stores, cafés or restaurants.


Telemarketing is an established technique used in market research and selling in many societies. Many charitable and campaigning organizations also use it, as do a number of AI Sections. It involves telephoning supporters or potential supporters and persuading them to make a commitment to extra or continuing support. It is a very direct and personal way of communicating AI's need for support, and there is a much higher positive response rate than there is to direct mail, although the costs are higher. Some Sections have used this technique to successfully renew support from lapsed members.

Telephone companies can supply telephone numbers (probably for a fee) or they can be collected on membership forms and stored on databases.

The Norwegian Section has perhaps the most successful telemarketing program and has produced a guide (available in English) on running a telemarketing operation.


Merchandising _ anything from ferry rides in Sierra Leone to greeting cards in Iceland _ provides a valuable part of AI's income and another opportunity for people to show their support for AI. In some Sections, particularly where direct mail is inappropriate, it has become a significant source of income.

Much merchandise simply promotes AI by including the candle or the name on products such as pens, T-shirts or wash-bags. Some simply include a message that the profits will go to support AI's work. In other cases T-shirts promote specific campaign messages. Merchandising can be a good way of reaching new audiences and recruiting supporters. Again, there needs to be some evidence that a market exists for a product. AI's membership may be a large enough market, but it can be best to look beyond these limits _ and not to assume that AI's members share the same tastes.

Distribution of merchandise can be through AI's local groups for sale on stalls, through advertisements placed in AI's and other organizations' newsletters, or through a catalogue.

A marketing and distribution program for AI documents can also be a useful way of raising funds and spreading AI's message. Public libraries, school and university libraries, government departments and specialist bookshops may be interested in taking all or some of AI's publications.

Special events

Activities often associated with fundraising are special events such as music concerts, theatre performances, art awards, auctions and street appeals.

There is a saying for special event fundraising: “The first time is for making mistakes, the second to make money.” For large events it is therefore strongly advised that professional assistance is sought before any decisions are made about investing significant resources or going ahead with the event.

A number of AI Sections have experience of special event fundraising. Their advice should be sought, and it is likely to be cheap!

Regular special events can be a valuable part of a fundraising strategy and a fairly reliable source of funds. They can also be a publicity vehicle for high profile figures to show their support.

It is usually best to stick with proven money-makers rather than trying things that are totally new. Even when successful in raising money, large special events do not have a good record for AI or other organizations in attracting long-term support. Special events are high-risk and involve considerable investment with no guarantee on the level of return or income. The more ambitious the plan, the higher the risks.

Many organizations have lost money even in events with very popular performers. High profile events take on a momentum of their own that becomes unstoppable. Because they are high investment and high risk, with few if any long-term benefits, they should not form the core of any fundraising program.

Risks can be kept to a minimum by the following steps:

N    be clear about the audience you are seeking to attract _ an impressive list of performers can fail to attract because their appeal is to too many diverse audiences;

N    sell as many tickets as possible in advance;

N    use venues with established audiences and get the owners to undertake the promotion of the event and underwrite costs;

N    set a budget and profit goal before committing to the event: over-estimate expenses, under-estimate income and look at the time involved for staff and volunteers;

N    calculate break-even point _ how many tickets need to be sold to cover costs?

N    check the legalities _ licensing regulations, health and safety standards, public liability insurance, etc;

N    keep careful records of income, expenditure and organization to make a repeat performance easier;

N    publicize the event (cost publicity into your budget);

N    investigate other possibilities for making income from the same event, such as having collectors asking for donations, selling T-shirts, etc.

Special event fundraising can, however, have many benefits. They can bring the community into contact with AI, provide AI with a vehicle for public and media promotion, and be fun for all involved. These are side-benefits though. The primary aim must still be to raise funds! By and large, in special event fundraising small is beautiful. Events such as dinners, film or video evenings, and musical performances can be an important source of funds for AI groups. They can also increase AI's profile and the profile of a campaign in the community.

Campaign coordinators can encourage groups to organize small events with a specific campaign theme:

N    During a country campaign fundraising dinners can be organized that feature the food of the country.

N    Events can be billed as for the country campaign and the campaign slogan and logo can appear on all literature and publicity associated with the event.

N    A special concert evening featuring the target country's music can be organized.

N    A raffle can be run at events with prizes originating from the targeted country.

Do be careful, however, not to give the impression that all the money from that event will go to that campaign exclusively (unless it really will). Remind groups to evaluate the event _ what worked and what they would do differently next time.

The AI Canadian Section (English-speaking branch) have produced an excellent and comprehensive guide to organizing special events which they are happy to supply to others on request.

Techniques for consolidating support

The principal way of building commitment to AI and for moving supporters up through the support pyramid is regular communication, including personal contact. This means reporting back to supporters on the results of campaigning, including good news stories of people being released. Let people know they are helping to make a difference!

The following techniques are used in developing regular communication with a support base of thousands of supporters:

N    Direct mail

N    Regular giving schemes

N    Top supporters clubs

N    Telemarketing

N    Legacies and bequests

Direct mail

Direct mail is an important technique for renewing and building support. Once people have joined or made a donation they are then encouraged to give again to appeals. This is generally most effective when mailings are integrated with campaigning _ when they are based on specific and current campaigns.

It is worth testing to see whether these appeals will be enhanced by adding an action element such as a postcard to be sent to a government. This testing is usually done by putting the card in half the mailing and coding the return coupons so that you can see which half responds with more donations.

Again, the campaign needs personalizing through the use of moving case histories.

Some AI Sections successfully mail their supporters for donations six times a year. Reasonable response rates range from 6 to 14 per cent for any one mailing.

These appeals also provide an opportunity to receive feedback on what the organization has achieved and to develop supporters' knowledge of and commitment to AI.

Each donation should be acknowledged _ if possible by a thank you letter. Some organizations successfully use the thank you letter to seek a further donation. Some make a thank you telephone call in response to large donations.

Regular giving schemes

Direct mail can also be used to encourage supporters to give on a regular basis _ preferably automatically. It represents a significant increase in cost-effectiveness, saving on administration, etc. This level of commitment represents another step up the donor pyramid. AI's experience is that people who gave perhaps a $40 annual donation may be willing to give $10 a month _ tripling their donation. When this is done by automatic financial transfer, or deduction from credit cards, it is usually allowed to run on from year to year, providing a stable source of income at low cost.

Top supporters' clubs

To encourage supporters to take the step up to the next level of the donor pyramid, some AI Sections and other organizations create special schemes to encourage people to upgrade their support. These are sometimes known as donor clubs like “Partners of Conscience”, where people may pay much more each month or year. It is sensible to give these people recognition, which they appreciate. This could be a smart lapel badge or a meeting with the director. It may simply be a telephone call to say thank you personally _ or the gift of an AI calendar at the end of the year.

When the time comes for a major item to be purchased (such as computer equipment) it is to these people that the Section can turn.


Sections have used telemarketing to recruit people into special regular and higher giving programs, as well as to renew support. Organizations have found that integrated with direct mail, it is a very effective technique, i.e. mail, telephone call, mail.

Legacies and bequests

At the top of supporters' pyramid are legacies, sometimes called bequest donations. This is a huge source of revenue and many Sections have been saved from financial disaster by the receipt of a timely bequest. There is a complex correlation between actively seeking funds in this way and receiving them, but supporters do need to know this is an option open to them.

Most importantly, as supporters have climbed the pyramid they have been developing a closer and closer relationship with AI. People will not move up the pyramid unless they feel that AI is meeting their needs. Our supporters have options and can easily give to other organizations if we are not dealing with the problems they perceive as important or not keeping them informed about our concerns in a way they appreciate. So, it is crucial to develop our supporters' understanding of human rights issues and how AI's work is meeting human rights objectives.

Other means

The US Section raises considerable funds through trusts and annuities. Many tax systems offer incentives to donate to organizations such as AI. It is worth investigating.

A sustainable strategy

AI needs to plan all its activities in one plan, which can then be implemented by different (specialized) staff and volunteers. Integrated planning at this stage can ensure there is coordinated timing of all activities for maximum effect.

One of the key pitfalls in fundraising is to build an organization on a very narrow base of one or two income sources. One day these will stop. This can happen quite suddenly, especially in today's volatile environment.

A good fundraising strategy should seek to build up a diversified range of fundraising activities and make sure that they are sustainable, not just one-off. Plan the development of your structure carefully so that over the next few years you know which techniques you will maintain, which you will drop and which innovations you will develop.

A key part of this strategy is knowing what resources you will need over the coming years in terms of funds for fundraising and people to do the work. Unstructured growth usually turns into unstructured collapse.

When growth stops, small reserves are quickly stripped away by continuing high fixed costs such as staff. When this is about to happen, funds become tight and Sections that should be investing extra money in fundraising to regain their lost momentum find it hard to take this money “away from” their program activity. Understanding the mutual dependence of fundraising and campaigning can make it easier to regain their position.

Developing a fundraising strategy is much like developing a campaigning strategy. Review your current situation by answering some basic questions.


g    What is your current mix of fundraising activities? What is the cost effectiveness of each?

g    What proportion of income comes from the membership? What are the costs of different fundraising activities? How long do people stay members? Are you replacing those who leave?

g    Can these be reduced without negatively affecting income? What is the scope for developing existing programs?

g    Are new programs needed?

g    Is there a natural AI constituency to which it would be best to direct appeals?

g    What are the barriers to growth, such as lack of communication infrastructure, lack of a banking system, negative public image of AI, government restrictions?

g    What resources (time and money) are available for developing fundraising programs?

A SWOT analysis as outlined in Chapter 1 can help this exercise, as can several other steps.

N    Agree specific changes needed. Develop a database, include appeal letters in members' newsletters, build AI's image in the community, supply fundraising advice to groups, involve fundraisers in the action planning process.

N    Plan to implement the change. Who is to do what by when?

N    Monitor and evaluate. Are programs working as effectively as they can? Why did one activity fail _ or perhaps fail in one place and succeed in another?

N    Build on what you have and use one program or activity to strengthen another.

It is important to constantly review the cost to income ratio of fundraising programs. Some forms of fundraising such as a regular donation scheme may have a ratio of 1:10, special event fundraising is more likely to have a ratio of 1:2. An initial mailing to potential supporters or an advertisement may have a ratio of 1:0.75 (but would move into a ratio of 1:4 over a period of a year as these new supporters give additional donations).

AI has a duty to those it works for, and its own supporters, to keep costs to a minimum. Increasingly there is also critical scrutiny of these costs from the outside. If costs cannot be justified then this can have a damaging impact on AI's image and effectiveness

How integrated are your fundraising and campaigning?


jCHECKLIST j    Are fundraisers and campaigners involved in the Section's strategic planning process?

j    Are people responsible for fundraising involved in action planning discussions, brainstorming, etc?

j    Is there a call to join or donate on every possible piece of campaigning material?

j    Do your campaign posters have your address and telephone number on them?

j    Does your fundraising material feature current campaign concerns?

j    Does your fundraising and campaigning material portray a consistent image?

j    Have you included practical fundraising suggestions and advice in your campaign kits for local groups?

j    Are you raising your campaigning profile at the important times of the year for fundraising appeals?

j     Are you making fundraising appeals to take advantage of a high campaigning profile or after human rights violations have received wide publicity?

Help for fundraising

Help is provided by the IS by the Director of International Fundraising. Also at hand is the Fundraising Working Group (FWG), a specialist sub-committee of AI's International Executive Committee. The FWG has a representative who covers each region and a resource group of fundraisers who provide a variety of expertise. All these people can be called upon for fundraising advice and assistance via telephone, fax or e-mail and there are some funds for visits to Sections.

The FWG publish Direct Communication, a fundraising newsletter. Let the FWG chairperson know if you want to be on the circulation list.

The FWG encourages fundraisers to attend AI fundraising workshops and can tell you where and when the nearest workshop to you will be held.

The simplest way to acquire good fundraising knowledge is to join six local NGOs, charities or fundraising organizations, receive their mailings and appeals for funds and test out their ideas for AI. “In some organizations fundraisers are the outsiders, the latecomers and interlopers; their integration into the organization will reflect this attitude and can seriously affect their ability to do the job... Fundraising works best when closely integrated and reporting in at a high level. The fundraiser cannot be hived off as if they did not exist and must be valued and trusted as much as any other functional part of the organization.”

Sam Clarke, head of Oxfam fundraising, in The Complete Fundraising Handbook

Professional guidance

Professional marketing tools can be used successfully in campaigning. Direct marketing professionals gather evidence on such things as which colours evoke certain reactions, and whether the day the mail is delivered affects people's willingness to respond. When making appeals, marketing professionals provide a pre-paid return envelope and a form or coupon to fill in. They add a note of urgency by writing, for example, “please reply by ... because ...” They provide an incentive to respond by writing, for instance, “all those taking part in the action at ... will receive a T-shirt at the special price of ... to help publicity...”

Raising funds from workers

In 1995, following renewed outreach work in the trade union movement, the largest German trade union, IG Metall, made a donation to AI of $65,000.

During AI's 1993 campaign on the UN World Conference on Human Rights an Australian trade union donated $A 2,000 to enable a trade unionist from Asia to attend the conference to challenge the position on human rights being put forward by some Asian governments.

The Dutch Section's approaches to companies have established schemes in which employees have agreed that a deduction from each pay packet will be paid automatically to AI.


Avoid referring to those who give money as active and those who only write letters as passive (or the other way around!)

In some countries, it is the fundraisers of AI Sections who most frequently contact the membership and support base. In other countries, appeals for funds are effectively the public face

of AI.

Supporters and the public should not detect any difference in value or different response when they contribute time or money.

The Fundraising Pyramid

N    Pareto principle _ 80% of income comes from 20% of the donors

N    The warmer the relationship, the higher up the pyramid, the greater the gift.

N    Outside pyramid:

Events, trusts/foundations, sponsorship, licensing, door-to-door collections, company giving, etc.

N    Inside pyramid:

Raffles, trading, etc.






Key questions:

N    How much does a new member/donor cost to acquire?

N    How many are you budgeting for in the next year _ a 25% increase?

N    How long do they stay? How much do they give over their lifetime with you?

N    How much do you spend on servicing them?

N    Does your magazine go out four or six times a year _ not more surely?

        (Remember, these are not your local group activists).

Direct mail: the essentials

Direct mail is the simple art of sending letters or “appeals” to your supporters asking for additional donations, or to potential supporters asking them to join or to donate money. It was the perfecting of this fundraising technique, above all others, that was responsible for AI's rapid growth in the 1980s. A direct mail pack usually consists of five elements:

N    An outer envelope. This often carries an intriguing message and picture to ensure it is opened. It will have a window for the address, a return address and the discount mark. In many societies national postal services offer substantial discounts for bulk mailings.

N    The letter itself. This should read like a letter from a friend. It should be quite clear about asking the reader to give money or join. Let them know which problem their money will alleviate, preferably using real examples. The letter should have a positive tone: it is persuading people they can do something.The first paragraph is read more than anything else. There should be a note of urgency at the end which leads the reader to fill out the reply coupon. Opinions differ greatly on how long a letter should be: like everything else, test.

N    A reply coupon. This can be separate or a tear-off strip on the letter. It should have the person's name and address on it, which will show through the outer envelope. It should re-state the request: “Yes, I would like to join/donate to Amnesty International...” Let the reader know how much you want and allow them to add an extra donation. A line of tick boxes with different amounts greatly increases income (people usually pick the middle box). Allow people to pay any way they want. Never let people just ask for information: this wastes time and money, and fewer people join or give. Code the coupon so you can evaluate its success.

N    An additional leaflet. This allows you to show pictures (which can be worth a thousand words), to provide feedback on past campaigning, or to give a more comprehensive picture of AI's work.

N    The return envelope. This should be pre-paid with your address and the name of the person who signed the letter _ and who will sign the thank you letter sent for each donation. The envelope should be large enough to take a cheque.


Make sure all campaigning materials, such as leaflets and posters, include a coupon for joining AI.

Raffles have always been a popular way to raise money for AI. This raffle book produced by the UK Section is attractively designed and highlights the purpose of the fundraising exercise.


Prepare some standard coupons you can use easily in different publications.

Good and bad targeting

Good: In 1989 the Australian Section mailed letters to 20,000 supporters of an overseas aid agency and received an excellent response rate of over 10 per cent. A good response would have been 2 per cent. The appeal featured countries and issues believed to be of interest to these supporters.

Bad: In the same year the Australian Section mailed letters to a thousand mail-order purchasers of woollen under-blankets. One person responded. It was difficult to know how to interest this audience in AI's concerns.


Even when advertising agencies offer to donate all labour and services free of charge, the cost of materials and equipment for making television, cinema and radio advertising can quickly absorb large amounts of resources. Moreover, not paying for services can limit the control you have over what the agency produces.


Even with months of preparation, outlay and organization, it is not until around 80 per cent of tickets have been sold that a concert moves into profit _ and then becomes a fundraiser.

Raising funds while recruiting

The New Zealand Section conducted a membership recruitment campaign by telephone in 1995. Some 46,000 people were called and asked to donate

$NZ 25. Of these, 1,768 new supporters were recruited, making an average donation of $NZ 27.11. They believe that asking for a specific amount of money contributed to the success of the campaign.

There is increasing cooperation between the merchandising programs of Sections. Designs for some products, such as cards and T-shirts, are shared. In preparing for any major campaign consult other Sections, such as the French, Dutch, Australian or UK, which have large merchandising programs, to see whether they have a suitable design you may be able to use.

A night for AI

The Irish Section held a very successful concert when the performer Phil Collins offered to play an extra night on his tour just for AI. All his other concerts were sold out, providing a good indication of demand. All the major organization had already been done, and the remainder was undertaken by the promoter rather than AI.

Database fundraising

An effective way of communicating with the membership is through a computer database that allows the recording of basic information such as name and address, how and when people first made a contribution, and how much they have donated. A database makes many forms of fundraising possible.

There are a number of commercial computer database packages available, although some AI Sections have developed their own. It is possible to seek advice on this from the IS.

Five steps to success

N    Promotion of AI and recruitment of supporters

N    Welcoming new supporters and providing options for involvement with or support of AI

N    Renewing support

N    Maintaining commitment

N    Efficient administrative procedures

The AI Visa card was launched in conjunction with The Co-operative Bank in the UK. AI received £0.20 in every £100 spent with the card and a £5 donation with every new account.

If your campaigning is in the news, a letter to supporters featuring the same campaign will build on their existing awareness and is more likely to give them the feeling of being part of a successful organization, and therefore more likely to maintain their support.

A small item such as a bookmark can carry a campaign message to readers and provide a coupon to recruit new members.

Amnesty International Campaign Manual